MUSIC IN MOTION

The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA

Yaman

Yaman is one of the grand rag-s that have stood the test of time and its grandeur is popular with vocalists, instrumentalists, beginners, amateurs and mature artists. It is also known as Kalyan, and is the prototype of the Kalyan family of rag-s.

Tone material: S R G M P D N

The lower and upper tetrachord are well balanced in Yaman. The ascent generally begins with lower Ni and in the direct descent both Sa and Pa are omitted. They can occur as the ending notes in ascending phrases like M D N S and R G M P. Ga and Ni are important notes while Pa is a prominent resting point. Both Ga and Ni can be sustained.

Some characteristic phrases:

M D N R \D S
N R G M P \R G –
R G M \R M G
G M D N D P

Its simple melodic structure offers immense possibilities for improvisation, due to which the beginners are often taught this rag. It is believed that a thorough knowledge of Yaman gives a foundation for understanding many other rags of the Hindustani tradition.

When natural Ma is added to the above melody, the variant is known as
Yaman kalyan (vide). Other varieties of Kalyan include Shuddh kalyan (vide), Shyam kalyan (vide), Puriya kalyan, Jait kalyan, Hem kalyan, Savani kalyan etc.

Time: early night (Bhatkhande [KPM I] 1979: 25)

Further listening:
Mogubai Kurdikar (ELRZ 17)

Duet by Vilayat Khan / Bismillah Khan on CD (PSLP 5086)
Recording by Kishori Amonkar
Recording by Imrat Khan

Performance by Uday Bhawalkar

केसर घोल के
रंग बनो हैं
अब तुम लाल
कहाँ जइयो भाग

अबीर गुलाल की
धूम मची है
होरी खेलत ब्रजराज

Composition: dhamar
The song depicts the colourful festival of Holi. Amidst the red and orange coloured spray, Lord Krishna is enjoying the festivity.

Tal: Dhamar

Performance:
4-16: Performance opens on the lower Ni, an important note in this rag. Note the sustained Ni concludes with an inflection of Dha below
18-23: M D N R ND – a typical phrase to approach Sa
44-58: Lower Ni is emphasised again
61-73: This is followed by reaching the lower Pa – N D P, which is sustained
75-89: Ni continues to be in focus
94-139: Movements including Re
141-172: Re merges in to Ga and being an important note, continues to be emphasised
174-205: The melody now moves to Ma. Note the movement returning to Ga via Re – M \R G (180-185)
206: Gradually Pa is approached and continues to be in focus.
240: Middle Ni is introduced with a glide M /N (244-246 & 257-259). Note the movement similarly returning to Ga with M \R G (249-253)
262: Ni is sustained and emphasised. Note the movement returning to Pa – N D P(276-279)
306-355: High Sa is approached with a glide from Dha – D /S. The Sa continues to be explored by holding it and weaving with the notes around it
356: Gradually the movements start to descend, first to Pa (361-363), then to Ga (372-274) and finally to Sa. Note glides enroute: R M G P \R (384-388) and S /S \S from low to high Sa and back (390-394)
395-410: A set of phrases (mohra) to indicate end of the first section (alap)
434-493: Composition begins. Note the refrain with a glide M /N. The first line is repeated thrice
494: Second line
515: Next line
536: Concluding line
587: Second part of the composition (antara)
627: Following line
648: Concluding line

Performance by Padma Talwalkar

Composition: chhota khayal

मोरी गगर ना भरन देत
पैँया परू तोसे कान्ह कुँवर

बार बार समझावू न समझत
धीठ लंगरवा एक हूँ न माने
हार गयी मैं तो हार गयी

The lady pleads with Krishna to let her fill the pot at the water front. She feels helpless as Krishna continues to play pranks without paying heed to her plea.

Tal: Tintal (medium fast tempo)

Performance:

5-12: Performance opens on lower Ni, an important note in this rag
14-36: Emphasis on Ni continues. Note the sustained Ni concludes with an inflection of Dha below (35-36)
38: Sa is approached with a typical glide D /S
97: Re is introduced, followed by Ga. Note a touch of Ga for Re (121-122) and a sustained Ga, at the end of which there is an inflection of Re (123-130)
134-142: Ga is approached with Ma – R G M G
158-166: Ma is sustained. Note the phrase including Pa and returning to Ga
172-210: Pa is in focus. Movements returning to Ga (181, 193-195, 203-204)
215: Middle Ni is approached, sustained and returned to Pa (229-231)
242: Middle Ni is reached again, this time the movements return to Ga via Pa (249-250 & 255-256). Note a glide MG /ND P(251-254)
266: Once more Ni, followed by high Sa (279-281). Through the following phrases, the melody gradually returns to the middle Sa
309: Composition begins. The accentuated beat of the 16-beat rhythmic cycle coincides with Ga, an important note in this rag
341-375: Variations of the first line
377: Second line
396-421: Improvisations around Pa
424-491: Movements move upwards
494: Second part of the composition (antara)
509: Following line
525: Concluding line

One Response to “Yaman”

  1. Really after long time i am listning Padma ji.This graphic style would be Very helpful for the students…..Sudip kr Chattopadhyay

 
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