The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA


Rag Gunakri is also known as Gunakari. Although some musicians also refer to this rag as Gunakali, the latter is supposed to be distinct from rag Gunakri (Bhatkhande [KPM V] 1974: 373). While Gunakri has affinity to rag Bhairav, Gunakali belongs to the Bilaval group of rag-s, having natural notes.

Tone material:  S r m P d

The ascent and descent can be simple and direct. Certain characteristics of Bhairav are noted in this rag, such as the oscillating Re & Dha, and the glide – m \r. Gunakri is also a serious and peaceful rag akin to Bhairav.

Some characteristic phrases:
d /S
r M \r ~
S r m P d ~
S \d ~ P

Rag Jogiya has the same pentatonic ascent as Gunakri. However, the former has Ni in the descent and there is no oscillation for Re, as there is in Gunakri, which concentrates on the first half of the octave, whereas Jogiya has movements in the second half. Gunkri is mostly used in khayal and dhrupad, and Jogiya in thumri.

Time: early morning (ibid)

Further listening:
Bade Ghulam Ali Khan EALP 1258
Recording by Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
Recording by Bismillah Khan

Performance by Ashwini Bhide

Composition: khayal

डमरु हर कर बाजे
त्रिशूल धर अंग भस्म भूखर
व्याल माला गले विराजे

पंच वदन पिनाक धर शिव
वृषभ वाहन भूतनाथ
रुंड मुन्डन सबन सोहे
अनादी पुरुष नारायण

The song is in praise of Lord Shiva and describes his countenance in details.

He makes music with damaru held in one (upper right) hand, and there is a trident in the other. His body is smeared with ashes and wears a necklace made of skulls. Having five faces, he holds a bow and rides on a bull. He is the beginning-less omnipotent God.

Damaru is an hour-glass shaped hand held drum, which is regarded as a symbol of creation and beats the pulse of the universe. It  is supposed to provide music to accompany Shiva’s divine dance.
Pinak (also known as Shiv-dhanush) is the divine bow of Lord Shiva, which is generally regarded as one of the most ancient stringed instruments (Rycroft [The New Grove’s Dictionary of music and musicians] 1980: 811). In the 12th century, association was drawn with Shiva’s bow and a string instrument, aptly called pinaki vina (Bor [NCPA Quarterly Journal, Vol XV & XVI] 1986 & 87:40).

Tal: Rupak (medium tempo)

4-9: Performance opens on lower Dha
20-24: Re is held
26-33: m \r, phrase indicating affinity to rag Bhairav. Note the ornamentation (murki) at the end of the held Ma, followed by a glide (mind) to Re, which is oscillated
35-41: d /S, a characteristic movement to approach Sa
44-47: m \r, followed by Ma again. Note touch of Pa to hold the Ma
48-61: Melody proceeds, first holding Pa followed by Dha, which is oscillated (57-61)
74-77 & 79-81: Again, m \r, followed by r \d /S (81-86)
88-92: Use of ornament with shaky effect (gamak)
95: Composition begins on the first beat (sam) itself and after the whole cycle of 7 beats the accent is again on Pa coinciding the syllable ba (baaje). Note a smooth glide (mind) from Sa to Pa
137: Second line
144: Third line
151: The next line
158: Concluding line of the first section of the composition (sthayi)
179-261: The second part of the composition (antara)
264-300: Elaborations using vowel ‘aa’ around Sa & Re
308-318: Slowly Ma is included in the melodic exploration, followed by Pa (333)
345-369: Phrases are rendered in sync with the pace of the rhythm (layakari)
373-403: Middle Dha is emphasised
421: Elaborations delve in the upper middle octave including the high Sa, which is sustained (440-446 & 462-468)
475-509: Phrases include notes beyond the Sa in the high octave

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