MUSIC IN MOTION

The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA

Jaijaivanti

There are two ways in which this popular rag is performed today. Both use the same tone material, the difference however arises due to the choice of phrases in the upper tetrachord.

Tone material:  S R g G m P D n N

When m P N S is used to approach the high Sa, musicians recognise it as Jaijaivanti with Desh or Sorath element (ang). On the other hand, if the high Sa is approached as in G m D n S, it is identified as Jaijaivanti with Bageshri element. The recording presented here is based on Jaijaivanti with Desh elements.

Some characteristic phrases:
R N S D n /R
D n P /R
m G \R
D \G m
R g R S

Natural Ni is used in the ascent while flat Ni is used in association with Dha – D n /R or S N D n D P or G m /n D P. Similarly, natural Ga is to be used in ascending movements whereas flat Ga occurs between two Re-s as R g R S. Flat Ga, if used in excess can bring Jaijaivanti dangerously close to Gara, a rag mainly used in semi-classical music.

Re and Pa are important notes. Re is repeatedly emphasised and its intonation, especially  the glide P /R, is very typical in this rag. The movement is from lower Pa to middle Re or from the middle Pa to high Re, and not in the reverse or descending direction, lest it would give shades of rag-s like Shuddh kalyan or Chhayanat.

Particular movements such as m G \R and n D \P can give an impression of rag Desh. However the presence of flat Ga and the phrase P /R help to maintain the atmosphere of Jaijaivanti.

Time:  late night (Bhatkhande [KPM III] 1999: 801)

Further listening:
Kesarbai Kerkar 7ERE 1
Nissar Hussein Khan ECSD 2509
Vilayat Khan ASD 2460
Recording by Baba Allauddin Khan
Recording by Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
Recoding by Padmavati Shaligram

Performance by Manjiri Asanare

Composition: bada khayal

ये अाली पिया
अाली मेरे बहोरिया तुख अब अायो
कृपा किनी मोपे कृष्ण मारो मुकुन्द

बल बल जावूँ तुमरे बलैया
दरस देखत दृगर अत हिया नन्द

Krishna, my beloved, has blessed me by visiting my abode. I surrender to him, for his delightful countenance brings immense joy to me.

Tal: Jhaptal (slow tempo)

Performance:

4-7: Opening phrase includes natural Ni which is quite high. Note the manner in which the sustained Sa is ended with a quick movement including Ni. Such intonation can be noticed at several instances (37, 83)
14-25: Re is sustained. Note a typical glide – R \D, returning to Re in the next phrase, where a touch of flat Ga is clearly heard (24)
26: Phrase rising as well as descending to the lower Ni. Note a touch of Ma (29) before falling down to Ni
30-33: Note the high intonation of natural Ni
44-47: Characteristic phrase m G \R, in which Ga is drawn
49-64: Pa, the other important note in this rag, is in focus. Note the touch of Dha for Pa and ending with a typical glide D \G (59-60), followed by the typical phrase m G \R, in which Ga is drawn
73: Phrase similar to the one around 26
95: Ornament (murki) including Pa for Ma, again followed by G \R
99-105: Phrase reaching to flat Ni and returning to Pa
106: The next phrase ascends to high Sa, hence going through natural Ni
115-118: R \D, followed by D n D \P. Note a touch of Pa (119) for Dha, which is clearly heard
125: D \G as a glide symmetric to R \D, followed by descent to Re. Note an ornament (murki) on Ma, similar to that seen around 95
148: First line of the composition. Note the accentuated beat (sam) of the 10-beat rhythmic cycle coinciding with Re. Also note characteristic movements like R \N (155-156), R \D (160-162), R g R S (167-169) throughout the composition
176-181: Lower Pa is approached with d n d P
182: Second line of the composition with the most typical phrase in this rag – P /R (182-185). Note that Re is approached from above
202- The next line, also including the glide – P /R
236: Second part of the composition (antara)
248-251: A beautiful descend, first from the high Re to Dha and then to middle Ga
261: Another descending movement – P /S n D P m G
279: Elaborations the lower middle octave using vowel ‘aa’
330-351: Phrases move towards Pa and beyond. Note the inflections on Pa, the glide – D \G and the ornament on Ma at the end of the phrase
358: Melody rises further to flat Ni and later on to high Sa with natural Ni. Note the glide R \D from the high Re (366-368). In these phrases the words of the composition are also used along with the vowel ‘aa’
391: m P N S, a typical approach to high Sa in Desh type of Jaijaivanti
403-407: Two typical glides – R \D and D n /R
414-415: D \G, another characteristic glide
432-452: Phrases move in the higher octave and gradually descend

 
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