The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA


Bihagda is a modern rag favoured by vocalists of the Jaipur-Atrauli gharana. There is some confusion about its name and some musicians refer to a variety of this rag as Khokar while others regard them as independent rag-s (Tembe [Kalpana sangit] n.d.:106 & 107). As its name suggests, it is allied to rag Bihag (vide).

Tone material: S R G m P D N

Three varieties of this are in vogue. One has the above tonal material. The second version includes both natural and flat Ni (Rao [Raga nidhi I] 1956: 112), and the third variety additionally includes sharp Ma (Patwadhan [Rag vidnyan V] 1962: 263).
The variety presented on the accompanying recording by Manjiri Asanare has a pentatonic ascent akin to Bihag. Whereas Re and Dha are weak and omitted in the ascent, Dha can be pronounced in typical movements like P D N P D m P G. Ma and Sa are important notes and as evident from this recording both Ga and Ni can be sustained as well.

Some characteristic phrases (for the variety described here):

P – m P G
GmP m P G RS
P D N P D m P G m

Emphasis on the natural Ma and absence of sharp Ma (in the variety described here) keeps it distinct from Bihag. When Bihagda includes flat Ni, its tonal material becomes similar to rag Khamaj (vide). However, there is a considerable difference in the melodic progression in these rag-s, which helps maintain their individual character.

Time: early part of the night (ibid)

Further listening:
Recording by Mallikarjun Mansoor

Performance by Manjiri Asanare

Composition: bada khayal

एरन बैरन बिन प्यारे नाही चैन
कैसे कर मन समझावू

अावत बीत गयी
अज हू न अाये मेरे
को लो बिरम रहे
चाहत मूरत बिन
प्यारे नाही चैन
कैसे कर मन समझावू

How do I console my heart knowing that my beloved’s heart is set on another woman? I  lay awake in the night longing for him.

Tal: Jhaptal (slow tempo)

4-19: Performance opens on Sa, the basic note followed by a movement laying emphasis on the lower Ni, one of the strong notes in this rag
29-38: Ga, another important note is approached and sustained. Note the movement returning to Sa with a weak Re
39-53: Ma is held, followed by a typical phrase – GmP – m P G
62-70: A characteristic phrase – GmP m P G RS
80-96: Middle Ni is sustained, followed by the high Sa. Note the movement returning to Pa with a weak Dha
98-104: Another typical movement – P D N P D m P G m
111-117: Again the typical phrase – GmP m P G RS to end the movement. Note the weak Re
120-187: First section of the composition. Note the typical phrase -P D N P D m P G m (139-146)
193-301: Second part of the composition, also including the above phrase (251-258)
302: Improvisations in the middle octave
331-350: Melodic phrases using words of the composition
363: Back to phrases using the vowel “aa”. Note the movements gradually ascending towards higher notes and also the intermittent use of words of the composition

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