MUSIC IN MOTION

The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA

Hindol

Hindol is pentatonic rag in the North Indian tradition. Rag Hindolam from the South Indian tradition is distinct from the rag described here. Hindolam is similar to rag Malkauns of the North Indian tradition.

Tone material: S G M D N
Ni is treated as a weak note. In fact, some compositions in this rag are totally devoid of Ni (Bhatkhande [KPM IV] 1976: 175). However, most musicians do use Ni as an inflection on Dha, which is an important note in this rag, and is often sustained. Movements can be simple and straight forward. However, in the ascent, it is typical to approach the high Sa as D -NM D /S.

Some characteristic phrases:
M G \S
S G M D –
D -NM D /S
S \D M G

If Ni is directly used in the ascent of Hindol, it will sound similar to Sohini. The glide from Ma to Ga and the absence of Pa can give impression of Puriya, whereas a strong emphasis on Dha can give a shade of Marva.

Rag Bhinna shadja, also known as Kaushikdhvani, has the same notes, except that the sharp Ma is replaced by natural Ma.

Hindol combines beautifully with rag Bahar, resulting in a compound rag known as Hindol bahar, often performed during springtime.

Time:  normally around midnight, but some musicians do perform it at sunset (Thakur [Sangitanjali I-2] 1978:138}. Bhatkhande however mentions the time for its performance as the first part of the day (Bhatkhande [KPM IV] 1976: 175)

Further listening:
Mogubai Kurdikar ELRZ 17
Hindol bahar by Prabhakar Karekar

Performance by Jayateerth Mevundi

Composition: khayal

सहेलिया गावो मंगल
मोरे घर अाये
श्याम अाज

नवल लाल की माला बनी हैं
लरा मोतियान गले हार

A lady requests her friends to sing and rejoice on the occasion of arrival of Shyam (Krishna). She describes the charming countenance of Krishna adorned with a pearl necklace.

Tal: Jhaptal (medium tempo)

Performance:
2-19: The performance begins by sustaining the lower Dha, which is an important note in this rag, followed by M ND /S, a movement typical to Hindol
32-39: Note the inflection of Ma on Ga and the concluding glide – M \S
67-68: A similar glide from Ma to the lower Dha, ending on Sa
79-89: Variation of D N M ND /S. Note the ornamented Ga & Ma with Dha at the end of the sustained Sa (86-87)
92-102: Movements with emphasis on Ma. Note the contrast developed by reaching the lower Dha (98-99)
104-116: Now the middle Dha is in focus. Note ornamentation (murki) involving Dha & Ma (110-111) and phrase ending with G M \G
122-131: Variation of D N M /N D, also ending with G M \G
137: M G \S, a typical concluding movement
150: Composition starts. Note the refrain with ascending movement S G M D S and the accentuated beat (sam) of the 10-beat rhythmic cycle coinciding with Ma. The refrain has the duration of two and half beats and takes off after the seventh beat
189: Second line
207-224: Elaborations using the words of the composition (bol alap). Note the movements replete with ornamentations (kan, murki & khatka) typical to Kirana style (gharana) to which the artist belongs (207-209)
225: Second line repeated
247-282: Elaborations (bol alap) continue with emphasis on Ga and Ma
296-343: Elaborations bringing in focus middle Dha. Note the inflection of Ni (334-336) on Dha, finally leading to high Sa
345-353: Movements leading to Sa. Note the phrases returning on Dha. Note again the ornamentation typical to artist’s style (348-350)
354: Second part of the composition (antara)
373: Concluding line
402: Elaborations (bol alap) around the high Sa
411-422: Note the ornamentation and ending of phrase – S \D
423-452: Second part of the composition repeated and elaborated with some variations
453: Concluding line repeated

Performance by Manjiri Asanare

Composition: khayal

मा पी संग खेले
बन बन फाग रुत बसंत

सावरी गोरी बोरी ले गुलाल
चाहे अझम पर बसंत
हस हस हसंत

Song describes the playful festival of Holi during the spring season and the manner in which beautiful dames spray red powder on each other.

Tal: Rupak (medium tempo)
5-10: The opening phrase emphasises the typical movement GM \G
11: Note the inflection of Ma on Ga and the glide (mind) from Ma to Sa
32-40: Melody ascends to high Sa. Note the touch of immediately higher note on each of the notes in the movement
41-49: Melody descends gradually to Ga
49-57: Finally leading to Sa. Note the inflection of Dha on sustained Ma and that of Ma for Ga
58: First line of the composition. Note the ascending movement of the refrain and final D N M D /S
88: Second line
107-129: Both lines repeated
139: Second part of the composition (antara)
149: Next line
160: Concluding line
175-209: Slow elaborations around Ga & Ma, using the syllable ‘aa’
210-252: Slowly the higher notes are included as well
284-308: High Sa is in focus. Note the typical phrase – D N M ND /S (291-294) & the inflection of Ni to sustain the high Sa (299-302)
323: Ascending movement rises from Sa to higher Ga. Note the inflection of Ma on Ga, which is clearly heard
346: More elaborations including the higher notes. Note similar inflections on Ga (353-354)
371-405: Phrases become slightly faster and have shaky & winding movements (gamak)
411-416: Again the held Sa, followed by Ga with an inflection of Ma
427-433: Shaky movements (gamak)

Performance by Ulhas Kashalkar

Composition: chhota khayal

जमुना तट बाजे बासुरियॉँ
सुनत मोरी सुध बुध
बिसर गयी तन की अाज

गोकुल बाजे बिन्द्रावन बाजे
अाये दरस दिखा जा

The sound of bansuri, the bamboo flute, is heard near the banks of river Jamuna, listening to which I have become oblivious of everything around. I hear the same music all around Gokul and  Brindavan, and now I am eager to see the face of the person (Krishna) who plays the instrument.

Tal: Tintal (fast tempo)

Performance:
4-8: The opening phrase is typical – M \G
20-22: ND N M, leading to Sa in the next movement
31-39: Ga is emphasised. Note the glide from Ga to the lower Dha, leading to Sa
44-49: Note the oscillation on Ma, phrase ending on Ga
59-62: Touch of Dha for the sustained Ma. Dha can be clearly heard
76-83: Approaching high Sa from Ma. Note the inflection of Ni on Dha
85-107: Note how most phrases return to middle Ga via Ma
117: First line of the composition, starting from 7th beat of the 16 beat rhythmic cycle
129: The same line is repeated with some variations
132: Second line
148: Elaborations in the middle octave using words of the composition (bol alap) as well as   the syllable ‘aa’
207-214: Including high Sa
239-252: First part of the composition (sthayi) repeated
267-279: Elaborations in the higher octave including Ga & Ma above, followed by gradual  return to Sa
282: Second part of the composition
307: Concluding line of the composition

 
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