The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA


Marva is one of the major rag-s of North Indian music. It is regarded to be a difficult rag on account of the close affinity to rag-s such as Puriya (vide) & Sohini (vide).

Tone material: S r G M D N

Re and Dha are important notes. In fact, dominance of Re is a hallmark of Marva. The ascending and descending moves can be straight forward, stressing both Re and Dha and often avoiding Sa.

Some characteristic phrases:
D – N /r – N \D
N /G r
r G M D – M G r

Although Re should receive greater stress, it is important to occasionally indicate Sa, the tonic.  Otherwise, a listener might mistake the repeatedly intoned Re for the tonic and then the scale of Marva would give the impression of being Malkauns (vide).

Puriya and Sohini have the same tone material. If either Ga or Ni receives emphasis in Marva, one  immediately gets an impression of Puriya. In Sohini, the movements are very much centred around the high Sa, and it has a more sprightly character and is mainly used in semi-classical genres like thumri and dadra.

Time: just before sunset (Bhatkhande [KPM I] 1979: 42)

Further listening:
Recording by Amir Khan
Recording by Ali Akbar Khan

Performance by Manjiri Asanare

Composition: chhota khayal

मोरा रे तुमी संग लागी लो
प्रीतम तुमवा प्यारे
सुरजनवा को अायो बलमा
अदारंग को मोसो बतियाँ चाहूँ

घडी घडी पल पल छिन छिन तुम बिन
कटत मोसो गुमान नी मिले बलमा
अदारंग को मोसो बतियाँ कर हूँ

This composition is attributed to the legendary composer, Adarang. In the concluding lines of the first as well as the second section his name can be heard.
My heart is set on you, oh my beloved. Adarang wishes to converse with you. At the every passing moment I am drawn to you, forgetting my own self.

Tal: Tintal (medium fast tempo)

17-50: After establishing the Sa, immediately phrases highlighting lower Dha and middle Re
63-101: Continued emphasis on lower Dha and middle Re, also including adjacent notes
104-115: Now the focus shifts to middle Dha, phrase returning to middle Re. Note the approach to Dha – D N r G M in which all the notes are approached from the note above
117-126: Again approaching Dha and returning to Re
127-135: Glides between middle Re and Dha, returning to Re, followed by descending phrases from Ma to Re and Ga to Re, finally ending on lower Dha
161: Composition begins. Note the accentuated beat (sam) coinciding with Sa, phrase quickly however moving on to middle Dha
185: Second line
196: Concluding line of the first section of composition (sthayi). Note the composer’s name included-Adarang
228-266: Elaborations using words of the composition (bol alap). Note the emphasis laid on lower Dha and middle Re
282-348: Along with Re middle Dha is also in focus. Note a glide between lower and middle Dha, phrase returning to middle Re (336-342)
350-461: Movements now emphasise middle Dha and high Re. Note phrases returning to middle Re
469-482: Phrases presented with a rhythmic gait (layakari)
490: Exploration in high octave continues with focus on high Re juxtaposed with Sa. Note inclusion of higher notes
556: Second part of the composition (antara)
599: Next line
610: Concluding line. Note the composer’s name included-Adarang

Performance by Uday Bhawalkar

Composition: dhrupad

करम करतार
करो मोपे दया की नजर (नझर)
राख बनी सदा

तोसे यही अास
मनमें करत हूँ
जगमें शरम जान की
राख ले सदा

Oh my Lord, forever grant me your benevolent grace. In this world, all I seek is your blessings and kind protection.

Tal: Sultal (fast tempo)

Being a presentation in dhrupad style initial melodic introduction (alap) is considerably long (about 6 min), followed by a fast composition. Note the use of syllables like ri, na num, te etc.
13-32: Just after establishing the ground note Sa, phrases move to lower Dha, which is sustained
34-128: Re is sustained and in focus. Note each time movements returning to lower Dha
131-288: Focus now shifts to middle Dha although also maintaining emphasis on middle Re and movements returning to lower Dha
291: Phrases approaching high Sa. Note also emphasis on middle Dha
362-409: High Re is sustained and gradually the melody descends down
432: First part of the composition (sthayi)
488: Second part of the composition (antara)
512: Concluding line

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