MUSIC IN MOTION

The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA

Khat

Khat is one of the most complex and hence difficult rag-s in the Hindustani tradition. Perhaps this is why it is a rare rag today. It is supposedly a mixture of six (shat) rag-s and hence shades of several rag-s such as Suha, Sughrai, Kanada (vide), Gandhari etc. can be perceived in Khat.

Tone material: S r R g G m P d D n

There are two varieties of this rag; one including flat Re and one without it (Patwardhan [Rag vidnyan V] 1962: 48-49). In the accompanying recording both Re-s are included.
Generally the flat Re is used only in the concluding phrase -g r S. Natural Ga and flat Ga are used in the ascending and descending phrases respectively. However, the usage of Dha depends upon the particular phrase. For example, both Dha-s could be used in the ascending phrases like d n P and D n P.

Ga and Dha could be oscillated depending upon the phrase.Pa and Sa are the important notes. However, generally it is hard to prescribe rigid rules for the delineation of this rag and musicians seem to be guided by the selected composition.

Some characteristic phrases:

mR m R P – d n P
P g ~ r ~ S
R G- m P g m r S
m P D n S D n P
S R G m P g m

Rag Khat todi is distinct from Khat (Rao [Raga nidhi III) 1965: 45).

Time:late morning (Patwardhan [Rag vidnyan V] 1962: 48-49)

Further listening:
Recording by Gajananrao Joshi
Recording by K. G. Ginde

Performance by Mashkoor Ali Khan

Composition: khayal

ये गुमान पात
पात हूँ समान

याही जगसे रब बचावे
तापर कितना गुमान

Don’t be egotistical. When the almighty is in charge of the world, why are you so vain and proud?

Tal: Addha (medium tempo)

Performance:

3-6: Performance opens with a characteristic phrase – mR m R P – with an emphasis on Pa at the end
10-15: P g ~ r ~ S, a typical phrase to conclude with flat Re. This movement recurs at several instances throughout the performance
18-25: An ascending movement with natural Ga, followed by d n P -resting on Pa
26-32: Ascending phrase again with natural Ga -S R G m P G m /d ~, followed by a descending movement – \mg r
35-38: R n S R G -. Note the augmented flat Ni, almost sounding like natural Ni
75-69: All movements conclude on Pa. Note the ascending phrases with and without Dha
103-125: Composition begins. Note the variations of the first line
126: Second line
132-137: A phrase where natural Dha is included in the ascending phrase ( D n S) and the descending movement ( d n P) includes the flat Dha
147: Second section of the composition (antara)
173: Concluding line of the composition
190: Improvisation using words of the composition (bol alap). Note how most phrases bring Pa in focus. Note a descending phrase with flat Ga and Re, followed by an ascending movement including natural Re and Ga (315-319)
366-377: Natural Dha is oscillated, followed by a phrase S d n P with flat Dha
394: High Sa is approached and higher notes are also included in the movements. Note the glides from high Sa to Ma and to low Sa

 
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