The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA


Jhinjhoti is regarded as a light rag (Bhatkhande [KPM V] 1974:261). Nevertheless it is practiced in both dhrupad and khayal tradition by vocalists as well instrumentalists. Furthermore, the rag is commonly used in semi-classical genres of tappa and thumri  and also features in verses used in Hindu wedding rituals (mangalashtak). In dhrupad tradition the rag is sometimes referred to as Kambhoji.

Tone material: S R m P D n

Although the ascent is pentatonic without Ga, the note can occur in ascending movement like S R G m G-.  Ga and Ni (especially in the lower octave) are important notes and Ga is a resting note as well. General movement of this rag is in the lower and middle octave (ibid). Many ascending phrases begin on lower Dha.

Some characteristic phrases:

R \n~D P
D S R m \G-
D \m P \G

Rag Kambhoji as practiced in dhrupad style can include phrases like mG /P instead of conventional ascent in Jhinjhoti – m /P

In some tappa compositions there is a touch of flat Ga and natural Ni (Thakur [Sangitajnali IV-2] 1957: 163).

Some ascending movements can lead to impression of rag Durga. However, emphasis on Ga in Jhinjhoti helps to keep a distinct image of the rag.

Time: late night (Bhatkhande [KPM V] 1974:261).

Further listening:
Vilayat Khan EALP 1308
Nissar Hussain Khan 7EPE 1242
Senior Dagar brothers (Kambhoji) Phillips Unesco P.1971
Recording by Abdul Karim Khan
Recoding by Ravi Shankar

Performance by Manjiri Asanare

Composition: bada khayal

महादेव विश्वंभर
जटा जूट त्रिनैन निलकंठ

व्याघ्रांबर अोढे शिव
भस्म लगा के अंग
श्रुंगी नाद पूरन बाजत

The composition describes persona of the protector of the world, the Lord of the Gods (Mahadeva, an epithet of Shiva). His throat is blue, hair locks are matted and has a third eye on the forehead. He dons animal skin and smears ashes all over the body. In his honour the counch shells make music.

Tal: Rupak (slow tempo)

3-8: Opening phrase includes typical phrase n ~ \D, in which Ni is oscillated (andol) and Dha is sustained
31: Ascending phrase from the lower Dha, rising to Ma and followed by a sustained Ga, being an important resting point
31: R \n with onset from lower N, rising briefly to Ma before descending down to Ni, which is oscillated and finally resting on lower Dha
38: Touch of lower Pa for Dha is clearly heard
45: Typical ascending – S R m P D. Note how each note is approached from the note above
60: G \n with a touch of Sa in between. Note the oscillations on Ni
83-91: High Sa is held. Note a typical phrase R \n~
98: A beautiful descending movement from Dha to Re
116: First line of the composition. Note the accentuated beat (sam) of the 7-beat rhythmic cycle coinciding with Ga, an important resting note in this rag
143: Second line
160: Last line of the first part (sthayi)
191-234: Second part of the composition (antara)
295: Elaborations in the middle octave using vowel ‘aa’
322: Movements leading to high Sa and above
377-387:Phrases with typical glides G R \n
405: Movements become faster and include the words of the composition

Performance by Uday Bhawalkar

Composition: dhrupad

मानुस हो तो वही
रसखान बसो ब्रज
गोकुल गाव के ग्वालन

जो पशु हूँ तो
कहा बस मेरो चरो
नित नन्द की
धेनु मझारन

The composition is attributed to Sayyad Ibrahim alias Ras Khan (1548-1628), who, although being a Muslim, was an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna.
This poem in Braj Bhasha depicts an intense desire of the poet to be around his Lord, amidst the cowherds of Braj. Instead of being a human, if he were to assume a form of animal, he would like to be a cow grazing in the fields of Nand, the foster father of Krishna.

Tal: Dhrupad

This being a performance in dhrupad tradition, the initial section of alap is rather long (nearly 7 min). Note the use of syllables na, num, ra, te and so on. Also the pace of movements is languorous replete with smooth glides.
5-21: Opening phrase has a touch of lower Dha and also ends with sustained Dha – S n \D
47-53: Movements go quite low (up to Ga) in the lower octave and then rise slowly
102: After playing around with Dha and Ni, now the middle Re is included. Note how the movements descend down to lower Dha
122-128: Smooth glide D /G
181: Ga is in focus
211-214: Ma juxtaposed with lower Ni
222: Phrases leading to Pa. Note the clear touch of Ma for Ga but the approach to Pa is unlike in rag Jhinjhoti – G /P, without Ma in between (229-236 & 243-246)
259-279: Melody moves higher. Note the sustained Dha sliding in to Ni and returning back via Dha and finally to Pa
304-323: Note similar movements again
334: A typical movement to reach high Sa, n D /S, which is sustained
356-361: A typical descending movement R \n D P starting in higher ocatve
376-398: Returning phrases, first to Pa, then to Ma, Ga & Re. Note a glide G R /P (389-393)
401-415: R \n D starting in the middle octave and merging in to Sa
418: Composition starts. Note a long smooth glide between the lower and middle Dha
453: Second line
472: Concluding line of the first section
523: Second part of the composition including high notes
556: Next line
572: Concluding line of the composition

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