The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA


Durga is a pentatonic rag which is quite popular with both vocalists and instrumentalists.

Tone material: S R m P D

The ascent and descent can be straight forward. Sa and Ma are the important notes while Pa is a resting note. The main movements of the rag are in the middle octave.

Some characteristic phrases:
m R /P
D m \R
D m P D
R D /S

Time: mid-night (Bhatkhande [KPM V] 1974: 217)

Further listening:
Bismillah Khan and V. G. Jog EALP 1322

Bhimsen Joshi EASD 1513
Ali Akbar Khan ECSD 41516
Audiofarm’s recording by Kesarbai Kerkar
Likhati’s recordings by various artists

Performance by Ashwini Bhide

Composition: chhota khayal

सखी मोरी रुम झुम
बादल गरजे बरसे

रैन अन्धेरी कारी बिजुरी चमके
कैसे जावूँ जल भरन
बादल गरजे बरसे

Oh my friend, my anklets are making music while the thundering clouds burst and pour down. The night is dark and lined by the lightening. Tell me how can I go to fetch water?

Tal: Jhaptal (medium tempo)

4-12: Performance begins with a phrase in which Ma is emphasized. Note a touch of lower Dha for Sa and that of Ma for the Re, before actually approaching the Ma
13-21: Variation of the typical phrase – m R /P, here including a short Sa
47-54: Another typical phrase – R D /S
57.5: First line of the composition begins on the first beat of the rhythmic cycle. Note he ending phrase – m R D/S. The line is repeated with small variations made to some of the phrases
94: The second line, also starting on the first beat of the rhythmic cycle. Note again the phrase, m R /P
131: Having repeated the first part of the composition (sthayi) the melodic elaborations are woven around the composition starting with the lower Dha. Note how each time the first line is sung with slight variations
190-211: Ma, the fourth note is in focus. Note a beautiful glide from the lower Dha to Ma (202-204)
225: Exploration around Pa, the fifth note. Note the ornamented approach (SmRmRSR) to reach the Pa, which is sustained. The pattern continues in the next phrase with similar articulations -SDSDPD, RSRSDS, mRmRSR, PmPmRm
277: Having explored Ma and Pa, the elaborations focus on Dha. Note a glide between the Sa and Dha (293-295)
314: Phrases with a touch of high Sa
338: The first line of the second half of the composition (antara) is presented and on the basis of which the high Sa and the notes above are explored
429: The second line of the second part of the composition
440: The concluding line of the composition followed by elaboration spanning three octaves

Performance by Ram Deshpande

Composition: bada khayal

मोरे घरवा अाये री पियरवा
मोरा जियरा अत सुख भयीलवा

रसीली मूरतियाँ सावरियाँ श्याम सो सुंदरवा
निरख निरख अंग अंग मोरा पुलकाये

My beloved has returned home and I am very happy. He has a beautiful dark complexion like Krishna, and looking at him, my heart is filled with immense joy.

Tal: Jhaptal (slow tempo)

3-28: Note a distinct touch of Ma for Re in the opening phrase, followed by ornamented phrase involving Sa, Ra and Ma (10-11), ending with a typical descent from Re to the lower Dha, which is sustained (17-20), finally merging in to Sa
29-43: From lower Dha to Re first and then to Ma, followed by again R \D, and back to Re
47-53: Again, R \D S
54-65:Re sustained with a repeated touch of Ma, followed by R /P, characteristic glide in rag Durga.Note the sustained Pa
67-89: Note typical movements -D \m, m \R & R \D
98: Composition begins. Note the refrain including R /P, D m, with rhythmic emphasis (sam) on Ma, one of the important notes in this rag
122: Second line of the composition
142-192: the first part of the composition (sthayi) repeats
206-228: Refrain of the second part of the composition (antara), followed by variation on one of the words of the refrain (muratiyaa) & back to refrain
236-275: The composition is taken forward
282: Elaborations using words of the composition (bol alap)
326-356: Elaborations continue in the higher octave. Note the sustained high Re (337-339) & ornamented phrases (345-349)
357: Second part of the composition is presented again

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