MUSIC IN MOTION

The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA

Maru bihag

This is a modern rag and can be considered as a variety of rag Bihag.

Tone material: S R G m M P D N

The sharp Ma, which is dominant in this rag, is emphasised in ascent as well as in descent.  On the other hand, the natural Ma is used sparingly in the ascending manner, only as in S /m G. Ga and Ni are important notes while Pa is a resting note.

Some characteristic phrases are:
S- GMP M P-
M G – RS R S NS

The composition presented here includes natural Ma. However sometimes compositions may not include this note, in which musicians do use the note in elaborations. During the faster movements however, the sharp Ma receives a clear preference, with a rare sprinkling of natural Ma.

Maru bihag can show shades of rag-s like Bihag and Nand. Unlike in Bihag, Re is emphasised in Maru bihag. Also, the sharp Ma is emphasised in Maru bihag and phrases like G M GR-S and M G M G R S help keep it distinct from other rag-s.

Time: early part of the night (Patki [Aprakashit rag I] 1971: 9)

Further listening: 
Bismillah Khan and V.G. Jog EALP 1272; A-92086
Recording by Kesarbai Kerkar
Recording by Prabha Atre

Performance by Ajoy Chakrabarty

Composition: chhota khayal

तडपत रैना दिना
पिया बिन मोरा जिया तरसे

इनायत पिया तोरे दरसन बिना
नैनन में मोरा जल बरसे

The composition is attributed to Inayat Hussain Khan of Rampur-Sahaswan gharana. The name appears in the second part of the composition.
It depicts a lovelorn maiden waiting endlessly with teary eyes to have a glimpse of the beloved.

Tal: Sitarkhani (medium tempo)

Performance:
3-17: Opening phrases emphasise the Ni and middle Ga, important notes in this rag
19: Re is sustained and the phrase ends on lower Ni
26-31: Typical phrase with natural Ma – S /m -G. Note oscillations on the sustained Ma
32-47: Now the sharp is in focus. Note also similar oscillations as above and rerun to Ga
48-57: Characteristic return – M G R S, in which Re is sustained
60-61: N S /m- G in which natural Ma oscillated
64-69: Characteristic phrase – GMP M P-
83-86: Ornamented phrase including sharp Ma and Dha
89-95: Note an unusual glide from natural Ma to middle Ni but returning on sharp Ma
48-196: Characteristic return – M G M G R S, in which Re is sustained
123-153: First half of the composition. Note that the refrain includes typical phrase-  GMP M P- and the accentuated beat (sam) of the 16-beat rhythmic cycle coincides with Pa, one of the important resting notes
157-237: Elaborations in the lower and middle octave using the words of the composition (bol alap). Note oscillations (andol) on sharp Ma (213- 214) and use of both Ma in a creative way
241: Elaborations focus around middle Ni
355-377: Phrases include high Sa and notes beyond
378: Second part of the composition

 
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