The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA


Kedar is one of the major and serious rag-s of the North Indian tradition.

Tone material:  S R G m M P D N

Natural Ma is the most important note in this rag and it is often oscillated, as seen in this recording. The melodic movements are not straight forward.

Some characteristic phrases:
S /m
m GP –
M P D \P m-
P m \RS R – S

It is impossible to move either up or down from natural Ma without a light touch of Ga, to avoid the shades of other similar rag-s. Ga appears as a hidden note in the gliding movements: M /P and M \R (Bhatkhande [KPM II] 1952: 91). This is clear from the accompanying recording. However, some musicians prefer to use Ga clearly, especially in the faster passages.

In addition to the natural notes and sharp Ma, some musicians prefer to have a delicate usage of flat Ni, especially in khayal but not in older dhrupad compositions. Flat Ni appears only between two Dha-s, as in the phrases  S D n D P or M P D n D P. Not an essential note, flat Ni is avoided by many musicians as the case is in this recording by Padma Talwalkar; instead, they may merely show a slight inflexion on Dha (Jairazbhoy [Rags of north Indian music] 1970: 103-104). When flat Ni is clearly shown, the rag is sometimes referred to as Chandani kedar. The other varieties of Kedar such as Maluha kedar and Jaladhar kedar are rarely heard today.

The movement  M P /S is a common phrase to approach the high Sa in rag-s Gaud sarang (vide), Chhayanat (vide), Kedar and Kamod (vide),  and here, care should also be taken to avoid drifting into another rag.

Time:  early night (Bhatkhande [KPM II] 1952: 91)

Further listening:  Vilayat Khan/Imrat Khan CDNF 50127 (HMV-Night at Taj)
Tarana by Salamat and Nazakat Ali Khan
Parrikar on variants of Kedar

Performance by Padma Talwalkar

Composition: chhota khayal

कंगनवा मोरा अत ही अमोला
मीने कहीने राहिलो तोरा
अब कैसे घरवा जावूँ मैं

जो तुम देहो तो गुन माने
ना तो कहे अाज अायी रे
ना तो कहे तोरा नाम लेत

The song is about a bracelet which is priceless for the lady, since it is offered by her beloved.

Tal: Tintal (medium tempo)


4-12.5: Performance begins with the sharp Ma which is oscillated and slowly merges in to natural Ma with a touch of Ga
15-22: m \RS R – S,one of the characteristic phrases to return to the middle Sa. This recurs with slight deviations (48-54)
25-30: S /m, another characteristic phrase, in which the natural Ma is held with oscillations. Note the touch of Ga in between
32-39: m GP – another typical phrase of this rag. Note the Pa, which is held with a touch of sharp Ma.
61-70: Once more the natural Ma is held with oscillations, followed by another phrase leading to Pa via Ga
83: Composition begins, the refrain takes off just after the 9th beat
127: The first line is presented with some variations
157: Second line is presented
175: Concluding line of the first part of the composition (sthayi)
205: Elaborations using the song-text (bol-alap), initially in the lower middle octave but slowly reaching the high Sa (316) and beyond
373: Second part of the song (antara)

Performance by Uday Bhawalkar

Composition: dhrupad

राधिका अाज अानंद में डोले
साँवरे चन्द्र  गोबिन्दके रास भरे
दूसरी कोकिला मधुर स्वर बोले

परतन निलपट दामनी दमकत
हाथ लिये अारसी रूप को खोले

Radhika (Krishna’s consort) is ecstatic today, having rejoiced in the company of Govind (Krishna). The melodious sound of the koel bird adds to this delightful moment. In the blue sky when the lightening strikes, Radhika holds a mirror in the hand and looks at her own beautiful self.

Tal: Sultal

This being a presentation in dhrupad style the initial melodic introduction (alap) before the composition is fairly long (nearly 8 min). Note how the movements are slow and drawn out and use syllables such as ra, na, num, te etc..
21-38: After establishing Sa, the base note, natural Ma is approached with a typical glide S /m, which merges in to Pa. Note the touch of Ga between Ma and Pa (31-32)
33-52: Pa is sustained and in the next phrase the movement returns to natural Ma
65-86: Phrases move towards lower octave, first to Pa and then to natural Ma
58: Typical glide from Pa to Sand also from Sa to Pa and back again to Sa
111-123: Again S /m, followed by m G /P
127-128 & 138-139: Note the inclusion of sharp Ma in conjunction with Pa and Dha, followed by sustained natural Ma
148: Once more S /m, followed by m G /P. Note oscillations (andol) on natural Ma. This movement recurs several times throughout the performance
222-248: Now the phrases include middle Ni & also notes beyond, but quickly return to natural Ma
264-267: Sharp Ma in conjunction with Pa and Dha, phrase returning to natural Ma
290-328: High Sa approached with typical glide P /S, and remains in focus
397: Again, phrases lead to high Sa & beyond and gradually descend down to the middle Sa
454: Composition begins. Note a beautiful glide -496-504
507-535: The first part is repeated
536: Second line
568: Next line. Note a glide between middle Ma and high Ma
630: Second part of the composition (antara)
861: Next line
676:Concluding line
728: Elaborations using words of the composition

%d bloggers like this: