The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA


Some rag-s of South Indian tradition have been recently brought in to the North Indian music (supposedly by Abdul Karim Khan). Hansadhvani is one such rag which is tremendously popular in the Hindustani or the North Indian music today (Thakur [Sangitanjali I-1] 1977: 13).

Tone material: S R G P N

The ascent and descent are simple and direct. Re is the most important note, and is also a prominent resting note, besides Pa.  This rag has movements mainly in the upper tetrachord, and generally portrays a  lively and upbeat mood while Shankara is a rag with serious character (Patki [Aprakashit rag II] 1975: 25).

Some characteristic phrases:
P /S N R -
N /G R -
G P \GR -
N /P G S R

Rag Shankara is similar to Hansadhvani. However, the former also includes Dha and gives prominence to Ga, whereas in Hansadhvani Re is prominent. Also, unlike in Hansadhvani, the ascending movement in Shankara avoids Re. In the descent as well, Re is weak in Shankara, whereas it is an important resting point in Hansadhvani.

Interestingly, both compositions presented here express the same sentiment of surrender to the lord, Hari.

Time: early night (Bhatkhande {KPM V] 1974: 255)
The South Indian tradition does not follow the time theory. Nonetheless, rag-s adopted from this system into North Indian tradition have been assigned a certain time.

Further listening:
Amir Khan EASD 1357
Recording by Hariprasad Chaurasia

Performance by Ajoy Chakrabarty

Composition: khayal

तेरा भाग जागा
मन लागा हरी के चरनन में

नाथन के नाथ
दीनन के पालक चित बसे
सदा जिन के शरनन में

Now that you have surrendered to the feet of Hari, your fortune will smile. He is the ultimate protector of all and the guardian of down trodden souls.

Tal: Jhumra (medium tempo)

3-13: Performance opens with a long glide (mind) P /S \P, beginning as well as ending on Pa
16-26: Characteristic phrase – P /S N R emphasising Re, the phrase returns to the lower Pa
39-47: Again Re is approached from the lower Pa, this time including also the middle Pa – R G P GR . Note the phrase again returning on the lower Pa
49-57: Phrases take off and return to the lower Pa. Note a beautiful movement -
P N R P G R G – (49-52)
61-07: Phrases bringing focus on to Ni, before approaching the high Sa
108-115: The high Sa is approached via the note above -Re, and the movement returns to the lower Re. Also mark the long glide from the middle Re to high Re (103-104)
116-135: The next phrase too shows remarkable similarity; starting at the middle Re, reaching up to its counterpart in the higher octave and returning back to the same point where it started. Note the use of syllables like re, ri, na, num
138: Composition starts off
182: The first part of the composition (sthayi) repeated
206-268: Elaborations in the lower middle octave using words of the composition (bolalap)
252-282: Phrases using solfeggio (sargam). Note the same phrase P N R with notes in different octaves (263-270). The Patiala gharana (style), to which Ajoy Chakrabarty belongs, is known for such sargam singing
286-319: Elaborations in the higher middle & upper octave using the words of the composition (bol alap)
323: Phrase bringing focus on to Ni, before leading to the high Sa in the subsequent phrases
337: The second part of the composition (antara)
361: Concluding line

Performance by Veena Sahasrabuddhe

Composition: khayal

ए सकल दुख हरन
हरि के चरण ले मन

काटत बंध द्वन्द्व जगत के
राम रंग
हरन दुख में तपन

This composition has been penned by Ramashraya Jha alias ‘Ramrang’, whose name occurs in the last line of this composition.
Oh, my mind, surrender to the feet of Hari, for he is the remover all sorrows. Leave all the worldly ties and get rid of the conflict of duality existing between you and the creator.

Tal: Rupak (medium tempo)

5-10: Performance opens with one of the most characteristic phrases -R G P \GR – where Re is sustained
13-22: Re is sustained again and the phrase returns to lower Pa. Note the use of syllables like re, na, nan
49-70: Re is in focus again
72-80: Again the characteristic phrases- G P \GR – where Re is sustained (76-80)
81-87: Long glide between Sa and the middle Pa, descending down to the lower Pa
88-97: Note how the next couple of phrases start and return to the lower Pa
115-117: Use of shake (gamak)
119-131: Pa is held, and the melody slowly moves upward to Ni in the next phrase, but descending down to the middle Re
149-155: A quick ascend upwards, use of ornamentation (murki) -RSRS followed by Ni which is held ( 151-154)
162: Composition begins. Refrain has a racy phrase starting just after the first beat of the 7 beat rhythmic cycle.
193: Second line
208: Third line concluding the first part of the composition (sthayi)
247-278: Elaborations in the lower & middle octaves using words of the composition (bolalap)
281-312: Elaborations in the upper middle octave
321-340: After having phrases emphasising Ni (321-327) and high Re (328-332), the high Sa is held (334-337 & 338-340)
343: Second part of the composition (antara) having the accentuated beat on the high Sa
364-386: In the next phrases at first the melody rises systematically and then descends down, equally systematically. First the high Sa is highlighted (366-369), followed by the Re (373-374) and still later by reaching Ga & Pa above (375-377). Hereafter the descent begins, first to Pa (383 and then to Re (386)
392: The first line of the second part is completed
418: The next line
439: The concluding line of the composition

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