The Automated Transcription for Indian Music (AUTRIM) Project by NCPA and UvA


Chhayanat is an old and important rag which is related to the now obscure rag Nat.

Tone material: S R G m (M) P D n N

The melodic movements are rather oblique in this rag. The ascent begins with an emphasis on Re which usually is approached from above, that is, from Ga. If used, sharp Ma is a grace note of Pa and is touched lightly in patterns such as PMDPMP \R and PDMP /S.  Similarly, flat  Ni can appear as m /n D P.

Sometimes high Sa may be approached directly from Pa. Re, Pa and Ma are usually sustained and  P \R is a highly characteristic glide in Chhayanat.

Some characteristic phrases:
R G m P \R
G m D P \R
S \ND P \R

The rag-s Chhayanat (vide), Gaud sarang (vide), Kedar (vide) and Kamod (vide) have similar tone material and share similar melodic movements as well. It requires a clear conception of their individual melodic features to avoid drifting from one rag to another.

Time:  early night (Bhatkhande [KPM IV] 1976: 115).

Further listening:
Gajananrao Joshi 7EPE 1228
Ali Akbar Khan ECSD 2587
Recording by Faiyaz Khan
Recording by Gajananrao Joshi

Performance by Ram Deshpande

Composition: bada khayal

ए करत हो मोसो नेहा की
झूठी झूठी बतियॉँ बनाये बनावे

वे तो हमें हूँ जानत तुम हो
जानत सरस जग
जानत हो दियरासो हियरा देत जन

He pretends to be in love but we understand each other well. I know the ways of the world and how people respond to love.

Tal: Jhumra (slow tempo)

3-10: Performance opens with a typical glide -S \D
12-28: In the next two phrases the melody descends down and focuses on Pa, which is an important note in this rag.
62.5-69 & 87-91: Re, another dominant in this rag is sustained
139-146: The middle Pa is sustained
148-153: The characteristic glide – P \R
189.5: The composition is presented. Note the accent on Re with a touch of the Ga above. Also note the characteristic phrases phrases such as R-R /G and RGmP-m-Gm \R
343-353: Pa is sustained, followed by a phrase including flat Ni – R G m /N D \P
354-360: The high Sa is approached from Pa and the descending phrase includes a typical glide P \R
370: The second half of the composition (antara) is presented
383-387.5: Note the phrase used for descending down from the high Sa – S\ND-Dn \ P
448: Elaborations begin, ranging from the lower Pa to the higher Pa (536) using the song-text
541-542: Note a beautiful glide from the upper Re to the lower Re
550-551: A similar glide is noticed from the middle Pa to the lower Pa

Performance by Veena Sahasrabuddhe
Composition: bada khayal

येरी अब गुंद लावोरी मालनिया
नौशे बने के सीस सेहरा

लागी लगन श्याम सलोने की
बनरी बनी के संग नेहा

A lady is requesting for garlands to be made as the groom is all decked up with a wedding crown. The way she is in love with Shyam (Krishna) the bride also is in love with the groom.

Tal: Jhumra (slow tempo)

4-11: Performance begins with sustained Re which is an important note in this rag. Note  that Re is approached from Ga
15-16: Note an ornament (murki) in between the sustained
22-30: The lower Pa is approached with a typical glide – S \D
32-34: A movement around Pa, with sharp Ma & Dha
50-56 & 59-63: Again Re from Ga
64-79: Phrases stressing Re and returning to the same note
80-89: Back to lower Pa with glide – S \D. Note ornamented movements (murki & khatka) around Ni, Sa & Re (81-82 & 65-66)
92: Emphasising Re
99-105: Ascending to middle Pa and ending with a characteristic glide of Chhayanat – P \R (101-105)
106-122: Characteristic phrases in the lower middle octave stressing on Rg, Gm, mP with some variations, finally ending with P \R. Note the use of syllables such as re, na, num etc
159-233: First section of the composition (sthayi). Note how the melody of the compositions emphasises both Re & Pa, and includes many characteristic movements -
S \D P (211-213), P \R (216-218), R G -G m (219-224), G m /N D \P (224-227)
245-270: Elaborations in the middle octave. Note P \R (246-249 & 265-270)
272-295: Phrases using the words of the composition (bolalap)
301-307: A phrase ascending up to Pa and then descending with typical glide to Re. Note the shake (gamak) at the beginning of the phrase
311-347: Ra & Pa continue to receive emphasis & movements such as S \D P & P \R keep recurring (327-334). Also note the typical phrases like R G, G m, G m /n D P
358: Now the focus shifts to high Sa & the second part of the composition (antara) is presented (384). The first line is repeated with variations (394)
424: Concluding line of the composition. Note how the higher notes are included in the melody while still maintaining emphasis on Re
436-444 & 483-487: Again, S \D P & P \R

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